The Bali Besakih Temple, also known as Pura Besakih by locals, is the largest Hindu temple in Bali. It offers a stunning view from the top of the temple area, where we can see the wide natural panorama until we reach the ocean, attracting travellers from all over the world. Besakih Temple is located on the east coast of the island in the Besakih countryside, Rendang sub district, Karangasem regency. It is situated on the southwest side bevel of Mount Agung, Bali’s biggest mountain. According to Agung, Mount Confidence is the holiest and highest peak on Bali Island. It is the largest temple on Bali and is regularly crowded with tourists who come to view the temple’s uniqueness and majesty.
Things To Know Before Visit Besakih Temple
Why is it called the mother of temples in Bali, because the complex of the Besakih temple is very large and very wide and there are many small temples in it, being one of the largest temples and the most temples in it, so it can be said to be the mother of the temple. on the island of Bali. Bali’s “mother temple”, Besakih temple, is over 900 metres up the slopes of Gunung Agung. It has been regarded as a holy place since pre-historic times in Bali. The first recorded mention of its existence is from an inscription that dates from 1007 A.D. Since the Gelgel dynasty of the fifteenth century it has been regarded as a central, holy temple for the entire island. All the allegiances of the Balinese people come together at Besakih. Each regency has its own temple within the over-all compound, as do each of the caste groups. There is a total of 18 separate sanctuaries. The three main temples are : Pura Penataran Agung, Dedicated to Sang Hyang Widi Wasa : Pura Kiduling Kreteg, dedicated to Brahma; and Pura Batu Madeg, dedicated to Wisnu. To the Balinese a visit to the temple sanctuaries at Besakih temple is a special pilgrimage. Each temple has its own odalan, or anniversary celebration, and on the full moon of the Balinese month “Kedasa” the entire compound of Besakih celebrates the visit of the gods, with an enormous throng of visiting pilgrims.
Regarding the history of the Besakih Temple, there are several versions that tell about the history of this Besakih Temple, because the Besakih Temple is classified as very old, so research must still be carried out for history. Because in the Besakih Temple complex there are many relics of the megalithic era, such as menhirs, stone thrones, and pyramid terrace structures. These relics show that Pura Besakih comes from a very old age, long before the influence of Hinduism. Based on the stories circulating in the community and existing research, it can be explained about the history of besakih from several versions, including the following:
Besakih Temple History Based on Rsi Markandeya
History Besakih Temple based on Rsi Markandeya : It started in 1284 where there was a rsi of Indian Hindu with name Rsi Markandeya descent who was a religious leader of Indian descent. Once he was meditating in the Dieng plateau and then he received a revelation to build the Besakih Temple. Then Rsi Markandeya went to the island of Bali through the forest in Java. According to the revelation heard and seen, Rsi Markandeya came to Bali by crossing the Segara Rupek (Bali Strait), the Rsi was accompanied by 8000 followers, the journey went straight to Mount Toh Langkir (now Mount Agung), to the slopes of the mountain which was still forested. In the wilderness, the sage and his followers began clearing the forest to clear land for agriculture. But his mission failed because many of his followers died of illness, mysterious events and were eaten by wild animals. As a yogi and ascetic, he knew that there was a mysterious power or aura that ruled the island. Finally he returned to Mount Dieng to meditate and ask for directions
Then he got a revelation by bringing 400 people from the village of Aga who are residents of the foot of Mount Raung. But before starting the work, he performs ritual ceremonies such as mecaru and plants 5 metal elements or five Datu including gold, silver, copper, bronze, iron, and is accompanied by Mirah Adi (main gem), so that they are safe in doing their work in the forest on the slopes. Holy mountain. And it turns out that in carrying out the work of encroaching on the forest there are no more disasters. Perhaps this is the basis of Hindus today, always perform a yadnya ceremony before opening a new land, be it for a house, rice field or moor, and for a temple to plant the five elements of Panca Datu metal.
After that he distributed land to his followers to be used as rice fields, plantations and houses. When Rsi Markandeya was on Mount Toh langkir (mountain agung) he saw that the island of Dawa (now the island of Bali) was not that big, so he replaced it with the name Wali Island which is now the island of Bali, where the word “wali” (Palawa language) from South India) which means sacred offerings, then at present the offerings or sacred ceremonies are known in the form of offerings which are brought by the people to the temple when they pray.
Furthermore, the Toh Langkir area was developed by him and was given the name Besuki which later changed to the name Basuki which means safe. Meanwhile, the place where Rsi Markandeya performed the offering ceremony and planted the 5 metal elements (Panca Datu) was known as Besakih Temple. Initially from a shrine, then a temple called Besukian was built, then the temple continued to grow, the construction was carried out in stages, so that it became the largest temple complex which is now known as Pura Besakih.
Besakih Temple History Based on Sri Kesari Warmadewa
History Besakih Temple based on Sri Kesari Warmadewa is the founder of the Warmadewa dynasty which ruled Bali for several centuries, believed to be the first founder of the temple complex in Besakih. This can be seen from the inscription at 914 CE the Belanjong pillar (“Blanjong Inscription”) in southern Sanur and the Penempahan inscription, and the Malet Gede inscription (835 Saka)9 which tells of Sri Kesari being a Buddhist king from the Syailendra dynasty who led a military expedition and to build a dynasty in Bali. As for the three inscriptions found if there is a similarity in the connection from Bali with the Sanjaya Dynasty in Central Java.
This is a date according to the Indian Saka calendar. Another thing that attracts attention is that the three inscriptions essentially describe the victory of King Sri Kesari against his enemies. As a result of the obsolescence of the inscriptions, only two of the enemies can be identified, namely in the Desert and in Suwal. It should be added that the location of Gurun and Suwal is not yet known with certainty. Among experts, some argue that the Desert may be the same as today’s Lombok. Another opinion states that the Desert may be synonymous with Nusa Penida.
Sri Kesari Warmadewa is known to be very diligent in worshiping to worship the gods who reside on Mount Agung. His place of worship is called Merajan Selonding or Merajan Kesari Warmadewa. As for him, it was he who carried out the expansion of the Penataran Agung Besakih temple which was once very simple and built the temples in Besakih to complement the existing sacred buildings including: Pura Gelap to worship Lord Iswara, Pura Kiduling Kreteg to worship Lord Brahma, Pura Ulun Kulkul to worship God. God Mahadewa, Pura Batumadeg to worship Lord Vishnu, Pura Dalem Puri to worship Goddess Durga, Pura Basukihan to glorify Naga Basukihan. It was he who ordered the people to celebrate Nyepi on Sasih Kesanga.
The Besakih’s name is come from the word of Basuki, the old language from Sanskrit Wasuki, and then it become the Ancient Java Language. In this Sanskrit, the Basuki means congratulation. In mythology of Samudramanthana has mentioned that Basuki is a dragon that twines the Mount Mandara. The omission has come from tradition megalithic which had been indicated that it had to be sanctified place. It seems, the Besakih temple is coming from very old era which is far before the existence of Hinduism influence. Hereinafter, an Ancient Bali king of Sri Kesari Warmadewa found the Merajan Selonding Temple in this temple complex area. He also commands to build the Blanjong Monument that is located in Sanur Village. The Besakih Temple complex is built pursuant to cosmos balance. It is based on the nature conception which is disseminating the fundamental temple complex that is arranged to pursuant of the way direction. So, this building can deputize nature as symbolic of the world balance existence.
The location of the Besakih Temple is located in the eastern area of the island of Bali, precisely close to Mount Agung, to reach the location it takes about 2 hours of driving to take 2 routes, where the first route is through Kintamani Village, from Kintamani you will pass a direct road to Besakih, and the route The second can be through from Klungkung village where you will pass Kerta Gosa. You can use help from google map to reach the location of this Besakih temple. It is very easy to find because at every intersection there are directions that show the location of this Besakih temple. If you are confused and don’t want to be dizzy, you can contact us Bali Tours to take you to the location of this Besakih temple, with very cheap transportation prices and accompanied by a friendly Balinese driver will make the trip to Besakih Temple very enjoyable. If you are on vacation on the island of Bali, don’t forget to visit the largest temple on the island of Bali.
To visit one of the holy and largest temples on the island of Bali, you should dress modestly and not dress revealingly, to respect the Hindus who will pray here. to visit Besakih you will be prepared to wear a kamen and a scarf for you to wear and this is included in the price of the entrance ticket from this Besakih temple, so you don’t have to worry anymore to bring a sarong and scarf from your place, because here it is provided for sarong and scarf for enter the sacred area and to honor the people who pray here. So you don’t need to hesitate anymore to visit one of the biggest temples on the island of Bali and is also often referred to as the mother of temple in Bali, by using a sarong and scarf you are already respecting the customs and traditions when visiting the holy temple on the island of Bali, and it is also hoped that if you visit come here to dress modestly and don’t dress openly to respect the Hindus who pray here. If you are interested in the spiritual history of Bali, it would be nice to visit the largest temple on the island of Bali which is very well known abroad